Society and inequalities

Maria Nowak

French economist and pioneer of microfinance of Polish origin. She was born in Poland in 1935. Her father, prof. Antoni Nowak-Przygodzki was the Vice-President of Lviv. Maria Nowak spent her childhood in Soviet-occupied and German-occupied Poland. After the war, she settled with her family in France. She graduated from Sciences Po Paris and the London School of Economics.


Since the mid-1980s, she has been particularly involved in the development of microcredits (small loans granted to those who want to be entrepreneurs, but have no chance for a bank loan). In 1985, she met Muhammad Yunus, a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur and founder of the first modern microcredit institution who became the 2006 Nobel peace Prize Laureate. This meeting inspired Maria Nowak to establish the Association for the Right to Economic Initiative (ADIE) operating in France. In 1997, she founded the Microfinance center for Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States, of which she was the first president. In April 2003, she founded the European Microfinance Network, which plays a similar role as a training and study center for microfinance operators in the European Union.


Between 2000 and 2002, she was special advisor to Laurent Fabius, Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry. She received numerous awards and orders, most notably the National Order of the Legion of Honour and the National Order of Merit.

Paweł Bukowski PhD

Dr Pawel Bukowski is a lecturer and a Research Officer at The Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science. He got his Master's Degree in Economics from the University of Warsaw and a PhD degree in Economics from the Central European University in Budapest.


In 2015 he was a Visiting Student Researcher at University of California at Berkeley. His areas of expertise include Labour Market Inequalities, Economics of Education and Economic History. he also investigates the long-run inequalities in Central and Eastern Europe. Over the course of his career he has thought at the University of Warsaw and Central European University.


He is an author of numerous working papers and journal articles, as well as a Member of the Royal Economic Society, European Economic Association and Senior Expert at the European Expert Network on Economic Education.